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Birthdays

  发表日期:2006年2月14日      作者:王小维       【编辑录入: 】      宽屏显示

Birthdays

Objectives

I.                    Knowledge: Students will recognize that different countries and people have unique birthday celebrations.

II.                 Skills: a. Students will describe a birthday tradition that is significant to them.

b. Students will try to learn how to say “ happy birthday” in Spanish, German, Japanese, Korean.

c. Students will most of the countries mentioned in Step IV and Step V on the map.

d. Students will be able to finish the four charts after class on their own for assessment and retell the stories in the reading material.

e. Students will recognize some of the plants and stones / lucky flowers and birthstones.

III.               Emotion: Students will have an increased sense of self-evaluation, self-worth.

 

Resourses Needed

I.                    PPT

II.                 A giant paper candle

III.               A tape recorder

IV.              Materials about different customs of birthday celebration around the world.

V.                 Four charts for performance assessment

VI.              A classroom in which internet-surfing is available

 

Procedures

I.                    Brainstorming: birthdays

Guide the students to think about and answer the question “What do you think of when you see or hear the word birthdays?”

Any reasonable answer is welcome.

II.                 Chain-game: When is your birthday?

Have the students go on with the game one by one after the teacher’s instruction, as a chain-game. Meanwhile, it’s a good chance for the students to know more about everyone else in the class. Listeners should really concentrate on others’ talking.

III.               Mini-lecture: Feliz Cumpleanos

Begin by discussing the various birthday symbols ( candles, cakes, parties, etc). Tell the students where the symbols came from and what they stand for. Be sure to include instruction on good luck symbols and expressions of “ Happy Birthday to You” in several different languages.-----------culture and language

IV.              Personal research: different customs about birthday celebrations. Discuss the birthday customs of different cultures. Talk about how the traditions vary between cultures, nations, groups, etc.

Do this as pair-work.

Have one student give the information about a certain kind of birthday celebration custom. Pick one listener to show the country on the map of the world.---------culture and geography

V.                 Concept development: dealing with the reading material

Review the concept that everyone has about different traditions. Discuss what a tradition is. Share a favourite birthday tradition of yours with the class. ( eg, It has been a tradition that on every birthday I receive a silver dollar from my grandfather for each year. Another birthday tradition in our family involves having mum-cooked noodles together for lunch or dinner.)

Have students find out the traditions in the text. Fill in the table and then ask and answer questions according to the information in the chart. Have students retell the text paragraph by paragraph.

Students are supposed to use the learning strategy-------skimming and scanning.

VI.   Video-watching: Knowledge solidification and extending

VI.              Discussion and sharing: Knowledge extending

a.       Finding the lucky color, lucky flower and birthstone for your month------------biology and science

Have the students discuss about the lucky color, lucky flower and birthstone they already know for different months. Instruct them to learn more about plants and stones. Help them to find the lucky colors, lucky flowers and birthstones for their months.

b.      Finding out what Confucious said about some of the special birthdays----------literature

Have the students tell some of the special birthdays in some of the countries, like 40th in Britain, 60th in Japan . Share what Confucious said about some special birthdays, like 30th, 40th, 50th, 60th and 70th.

c.       Finding some important events and birthdays happened on the same birthday as yours in the history---------history and celebrities

Guide students surf on the internet and find useful information about “today” in the history. Tell the students to pick one or two events and persons to talk about.

VII.            Hands on: light the candles

( With the background music Happy Birthday to You on)

Let the students write down their own names and birthdays on a segment of a giant paper candle ( having the students with the closest upcoming birthdays at the top of the candle). Tell the students that the class candle is going to burn until each student’s birthday has passed and / or been recognized. When a child’s birthday is celebrated, cut their segment off the candle and move the flame down. This will help make each child’s birthday equally important and carry the theme throughout the year on a personal level.

 

Additional activities

I.                    Finish the charts 1, 2, 4.

II.                 Write about their best birthday ever (What it was like or what they would wish for).

III.               Find information about how candles were and are made.

IV.              Birthday calculator.( Find the address of the birthday calculator on the internet and figure out how many total months, days, minutes, seconds they have lived.

 

Assessment

I.                    Brainstorming papers will be used as a pre-assessment to see how much they know.

II.                 The students sharing of the different customs will be assessed.

III.               Concept development chart about the reading material will be assessed.

IV.              The students “ Today in the History” chart will be assessed.

V.                 Question-paper about the video program will be assessed.

 

   Appendix

I.    Charts

Chart I

        

Birthday

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Chart II:

 

 

 

 

 

Special Birthday Customs

 

Countries

Continent

Special Customs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chart III:

My Birthday in History

 

 

Event

When

What

Where

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

celebrities

who

when

why

where

other

information

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chart IV

 

age

nationality

celebrations

Something about customs

Teresa

 

 

 

 

Francisco

 

 

 

 

Lin Xiaohan

 

 

 

 

Mr Brady

 

 

 

 

 

II.                  Calendar

 

III.               Question paper for video program

1.       What does Sheila find when she comes back home?

2.       What kind of list is it?

3.       What is on the list?

4.       What does Sheila imagine she’ll get?

5.       What kind of food does she imagine there will be?

6.       Why does Sheila leave the apartment?

7.       What is Mark doing when Sheila comes back home?

8.       Does she doubt her guess when she saw what Mark was doing?

9.       What is Sheila doing in her room?

10.   How does Sheila feel at the end?

IV.    Special birthday celebration customs around the world

In Korea one of the most important birthdays is a child's first birthday. The children are dressed in special clothes and are taken in front of a large gathering of friends and family members. There is a big feast and the guests leave money for the new one-year old child. The child's future is told by the items the birthday child picks up. In Korea, "Paegil" (the 100th day after a child's birth) is a day of feasting for the child's family. Similarly, on a Korean child?s first birthday, a party called a "Tol" or "Dol" is held. Family and friends gather to enjoy food together and offer the one-year-old gifts of money.

Hindu children only celebrate their birthdays until they are 16 years old. Their birthday is very religious. They take flowers to the temple and the child receives a blessing from a priest. The birthday child does not even have to go to school on their birthday.

Many of the common birthday symbols come from Germany. The children in Germany have birthday cakes, parties, and blow out candles. However children may celebrate their birthdays differently depending upon which part of Germany they live in. The parties in south Germany are usually quiet celebrations where the child is the center of attention for the day.

Children in Mexico have birthday customs that have been around for centuries. Most birthday parties in Mexico include a pinata. A pinata is a large paper-mache object that is shaped like something appealing and covered with colorful paper. The pinata is filled with candy and treats. Pinatas are often shaped like animals or stars. The pinata is hung by a rope and blindfolded children take turns hitting the pinata with a stick. When they break the pinata all the goodies come out. This tradition is over 300 years old.

Each year, Asante people in Ghana celebrate "krada" (meaning "Soul Day") on the day of the week that they were born. This observance involves a cleansing ritual intended to purify the inner soul. On a person's krada, he or she wakes up early and washes using a special leaf soaked overnight in water. An afternoon feast with family and friends is held in the person?s honor, and the celebrant usually dresses in clothing with a white background.

In several Latino cultures, a girl's 15th birthday, called a "Quinceanera", marks her passage into adulthood. This celebration often includes a religious ceremony at church, in which the young lady recognizes her heritage and her spiritual journey. Many Quinceaneras include a candle-lighting ceremony, where a young woman illuminates her parents' candles using the flame of her own candle. In turn, her parents light the candles of their parents, and so on. In some Latin American countries, a young woman changes her shoes from flats to heels during the ceremony.

Mexican birthday celebrations feature pitas filled with candy and small toys. At birthday parties, children take turns hitting the pita, a hollow figure shaped like an animal, flower, automobile, or other object that is suspended from the ceiling. While blindfolded, kids hit the pita with a stick until it breaks open. When the treasures rain down on the floor, everyone scrambles to collect them. People believe that the child who breaks open the pita will have good luck.

Children in Argentina receive pulls on the earlobe for their birthday. Traditionally, they get one pull for each year of their life.

Egyptian birthday parties are filled with dancing and singing when a child turns one year old. Flowers and fruit are used to decorate the party as symbols of life and growth.

In Saudi Arabia, people do not observe birthdays due to spiritual beliefs. Religious holidays and weddings, however, are occasions for great celebration.

At an Israeli child's birthday party, he or she sits in a special chair decorated with fresh flowers and greens. To celebrate the child's age, family and friends gather around the chair, lifting and raising it once for each year of life - plus one more for good luck!

When Japanese children turn 7, 5, or 3, it is thought to be especially lucky. They are allowed to participate in the upcoming Shichi-go-san (meaning "Seven-Five-Three") Festival, celebrated annually on November 15. During this festival, children and their families visit a shrine or other place of worship, give thanks for good health, and ask to be blessed with continued well-being in the future. Afterwards, a family will often throw a party and bestow gifts upon the child. For this occasion, girls and boys always dress in their finest clothes, which may be traditional kimonos or western-style clothing.

In China, people believe that tigers protect children. Family members bring newborns special food and present them with gifts of clothing or toys decorated with tigers. When a Chinese girl or boy turns one year old, a variety of objects and toys are placed on the floor around the child. According to ancient beliefs, the object that the child chooses is a symbol foreshadowing the profession he or she will pursue in life.

In Hong Kong and some other Chinese communities, special noodles are served for lunch in honor of the birthday child. The noodles are extra-long to symbolize a long life.

Filipino families display blinking colored lights to show that someone is having a birthday at their home. The whole family usually goes to church together to thank God, and a celebration with close family and friends may follow.

People in Holland hang birthday calendars to remind them of the birth dates of all their family and friends. Adults often bring a birthday cake to work to share with co-workers on their special day.

Instead of cake, Russian children are presented with pies, inscribed with a special birthday message.

"Birthday bumps" are given to Irish children in honor of their birthday. While held upside down, the birthday celebrant is gently bumped on the floor one time for every year of age - plus one extra "bump" for good luck!

Another old tradition still practiced by some English people is to make a birthday cake with symbolic objects baked inside. In medieval times, objects such as coins and thimbles were mixed into the batter. People believed that the person who got the coin would be wealthy, while the unlucky finder of the thimble would never marry. Today, small figures, fake coins and small candies are more common. Guests are warned ahead of time as well, so no one injures their teeth or swallows a tiny treasure.

Danish people fly the country's flag outside their home to signify that someone in the family is having a birthday. And while the birthday child is asleep, gifts are placed around the bed, so presents will be the first thing in view when the child awakes.

Norwegian children dance in front of their class with a friend while the rest of the students sing a happy birthday song. Norway's national flag is also displayed outside the home of a birthday person. When important people have birthdays, the streets in Norway are decorated with flags.

Like Danish and Norwegian people, Swedes like to use their national flag to decorate on birthdays and special occasions. Swedish children are often served breakfast in bed. Birthday cakes in Sweden are similar to pound cakes and are decorated with marzipan.

Singing "Happy Birthday to You" has also been a long-standing tradition on birthdays as well. It was written by two American sisters in 1893, and has been translated into several languages around the world.

Most children have a birthday cake with candles on their birthdays. In some places, like Scotland, thereis another custom, too. There people spank or hit the child on his/ her birthday. This may hurt a little, but they say it’s lucky for the child. The child must never cry. The custom says that if you cry, you will cry all year round.

The reason for birthday spanks is to make the bad spirits go away. The harder you spank, the better it is. In Belgium, another country in Europe, the custom is a little different. There a parent goes into the child’s bedroom early in the morning with the needle. As soon as the child wakes up, the parent pricks the child with the needle. This is for good luck.

IV.     Lecture

Feliz Cumpleanos* - Maurine Benson Ozment

  "Feliz Cumpleanos," That's how they say it in Spain.

"Frohlicher Geburtstag," In German it means the same.

"Gratulerer med magen," Norwegians say it too.

But anyway you say it, It means "Happy Birthday to you!"

They say in Samoa, "Manuia lou aso fanau."

"Tanjobi omedeto," The Japanese say, and bow.

"Sangilulchíukhahamnida," Koreans say it too.

But anyway you say it, It means "Happy Birthday to you!"

   V.        Lucky color/ flower/ birthstone for each month

Month / Color / Flower /Birthstone

January /White /Carnation /Garnet

February /Dark Blue /Violet /Amethyst

March /Silver /Jonquil /Aquamarine

April /Yellow /Sweet Pea /Diamond

May /Lilac /Lily of the Valley /Emerald

June /Pink /Rose /Pearl

July /Sky Blue /Larkspur /Ruby

August /Dark Green /Gladiola /Peridot

September /Gold /Aster /Sapphire

October /Brown /Calendula /Opal

November /Purple /Chrysanthemum /Topaz

December /Red /Narcissus /Turquoise

VI.            Reference for teachers

Celebrating birthdays is a very old custom. Ancient people did not know the exact day of their birth, yet measured time by using the moon and the seasons. As humans began to learn more about the earth's natural time gage, calendars were developed. Calendars made it easy for people to keep track of and celebrate important events each year. Birthdays were some of the special events that people noted on their calendars.

Many of the symbols that we associate with birthdays had their roots hundreds of years ago. There are a few explanations as to why we have birthday cakes. Some say it is because the Greeks used to take cakes to the temple of the goddess of the moon, Artemis. They took her round cakes to represent the full moon. Another view is that the tradition of the birthday cake started in Germany. A bread was made in the shape of the baby Jesus's swaddling clothes. Geburtstagorten is another type of German cake that was said to have been used for birthday s. It was a layered cake that was much sweeter than the bread type cake.

Another symbol that is closely tied to the birthday cake is the custom of putting candles on the cake. The Greek people who took their cakes to Artemis placed candles on the cake because it made the cake look as if it was glowing like the moon (Gibbons, 1986). The Germans were known as good candle makers and started to make small candles for their cakes. Some people say that the candles were put on for religious reasons. Some Germans place a big candle in the center of the cake to symbolize the "light of life" (Corwin, 1986). Others believed that the smoke from fires would take their wishes up to heaven. Today many people make silent wishes as they blow out their candles. They believe that blowing out all the candles in one breath will bring good luck.

A gathering or party is usually held so that the birthday person can have their cake and blow out the candles. The very earliest parties were held because people thought that evil spirits would visit them on their birthdays. They stuck close to their friends and family so that the evil spirits would not bother them. Later on parties were gatherings where friends and family members would give gifts or flowers to the person having the birthday. Today lots of birthday parties are for fun. If people cannot visit someone on their birthday they often send them a birthday card. The tradition of sending birthday cards was started in England about 100 years ago (Motomora, 1989).

Many birthday traditions deal with luck. A good luck birthstone, good luck flower, and a good luck color have been assigned to each month of the year. Birthday presents dealing with these good luck symbols are often given as gifts.

The common birthday symbols have been taken from numerous countries. Yet, each country still has custom and traditions unique to themselves. Some countries have uncommon customs that are very different from the current American view of birthdays. Many birthday celebrations are centered around religious ceremonies or themes. Each country, people, and region have their own set of customs. The following are examples of only a few types of celebrations.

Before humans had a way of keeping time, no one paid much attention to the anniversary of important events, such as birthdays. Only when ancient peoples began taking notice of the moon's cycles, did they pay attention to the changing seasons and the pattern that repeated itself over and over. Eventually, the first calendars were formulated in order to mark time changes and other special days. From this tracking system came the ability to celebrate birthdays and other significant anniversaries the same day each year.

Evidence of birthday observances dates back before the rise of Christianity. In pagan cultures, people feared evil spirits - especially on their birthdays. It was a common belief that evil spirits were more dangerous to a person when he or she experienced a change in their daily life, such as turning a year older. As a result, birthdays were merry occasions celebrated with family and friends, who surrounded the person of honor with laughter and joy in order to protect them from evil. Instead of gifts, most guests brought positive thoughts and happy wishes for the upcoming year. However, if well-wishers did bring gifts, it was considered an especially good influence for the birthday person. Although historians are certain that people have observed their birthdays for quite some time, there are few records of such celebrations that still exist. Of these few descriptions, only those birthdays of kings, high-ranking nobility, and other important figures have been documented. Common people and especially children never celebrated their birth when the idea came about. This trend has been explained by a theory that nobility were the only people wealthy enough to throw such celebrations, and quite possibly were the only ones deemed important enough to have been written about or remembered. Some historians believe these early birthday bashes resulted in the custom of wearing birthday "crowns" as time went on.

Eventually, birthday celebrations became a tradition around the world with young and old, rich or poor. Although birthday customs are quite similar in some countries today, not everyone celebrates in the same way. Different people have incorporated their own rituals into the birthday celebration, based on spiritual beliefs and ancient cultural traditions. While you may find some of them odd, or even humorous, each one is unique.

VII.      Reading Materials

 

 

 

 

 

 


 
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